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Archive for February 2019

IVF Success Stories

ICSI Positive Patient – After 4 Years of Sub-fertility at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center

4 years of Infertility treated Successfully at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center.

Patient : Mr. Sajid Mehmood & Mrs. Amna Iqbal

ACIMC has been offering State of the ART Infertility Treatment since 1998, including

ICSI

IVF

PGD

IUI

LAPAROSCOPY

FET

GENDER SELECTION

GENDER BALANCING

FAMILY BALANCING

TEST TUBE

AZOOSPERMIA

Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center – Best Infertility / Subfertility Treatment via IVF / ICSI / FETTesttube

Read More
IVF Success Stories

PGD Positive Patient – After 12 Years of Sub-fertility at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center

12 years of Infertility treated Successfully at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center.

Patient : Mr. Adnan Zafar & Mrs. Ayesha Adnan

ACIMC has been offering State of the ART Infertility Treatment since 1998, including

ICSI

IVF

PGD

IUI

LAPAROSCOPY

FET

GENDER SELECTION

GENDER BALANCING

FAMILY BALANCING

TEST TUBE

AZOOSPERMIA

Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center – Best Infertility / Subfertility Treatment via IVF / ICSI / FETTesttube

Read More

Testicular Biopsy

TESTICULAR BIOPSY

TESTICULAR BIOPSY

A testicular biopsy is a test used to perform for male infertility, it is a procedure where a small sample of tissue is taken from the testes and examined under microscope for the presence of sperms and also to look for the cause of low sperm count and/or abnormal quality of sperms.

Which patients should undergo testicular biopsy?

In the evaluation of male infertility, the first step is to perform a semen analysis, if this test detects low sperm count, absent sperm count or an abnormality in the sperms then further testing is required in order to identify the cause of these abnormalities.

Next comes the blood testing for sex hormone levels and if the hormone levels come out normal then testicular biopsy should be performed as advised by the infertility specialists.

The testicular biopsy helps us assess the production and maturation of sperm cells in the testes.

Male reproductive system

We must first have a brief idea about the male reproductive system and the organs involved in formation and transport of sperms.

The male reproductive system consists of primary sex organs the testicles, scrotum and penis, and a few accessory organs.

Testicles are two oval shaped organs located outside the body in a pouch like sac of skin covering, called the scrotum. These are responsible for making the primary sex hormone, testosterone, and for generating sperms. Within the testicles are coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules which are responsible for producing sperms. The sperms pass from testicles to epididymis, where the sperms mature and are stored. They are released into the vas deferens by contractions, when sexual arousal occurs.

The vas deferens transports mature sperms into the urethra, the tube that is responsible for carrying urine and sperms outside the body, should ejaculation occur. The opening of urethra is at the tip of penis, and once a male reaches sexual climax, the semen which contains sperms is expelled from the penis.

Near the base of the bladder are sac like pouches called seminal vesicles, that are attached to the vas deferens, these seminal vesicles provide a sugar rich fluid (fructose) to the sperms, which is the source of energy that allows them to move.

The primary hormones responsible for the male reproductive system to function normally are Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone.

For spermatogenesis (formation of sperms), the follicle stimulating hormone is necessary, and luteinizing hormone is required for stimulation of testosterone production, which in turn is required for sperm formation.

Uses of testicular biopsy:

  • To determine if the problem of sperm production is caused by a blockage
  • Extract sperms to use them in the IVF procedure, in instances where sperms are not present in the semen
  • To diagnose testicular cancer
  • To determine the cause of a testicular lump.

Process of testicular biopsy

There are two commonly used techniques to perform a testicular biopsy:

  • Needle biopsy: this is performed under local anesthesia where a sample of testicular tissue is obtained using a specialized syringe or needle.
  • Open biopsy: this can be performed under local or general anesthesia, here a small cut is made into the scrotal skin and a piece of testis is taken out using a blade.

Following are the details of commonly performed testicular biopsies:

A testicular biopsy is an out patient procedure, usually performed at your doctor’s clinic or a hospital. It takes 15 to 20 minutes. The patient is supposed to stay still during the procedure and hence is offered a sedative, some doctors prefer a general anesthesia.

The patient is asked to lie on his back and the scrotal area is cleaned to remove any bacteria. A local anesthesia is used to numb the skin of the scrotum.

Percutaneous biopsy: A percutaneous biopsy also called fine needle biopsy is a procedure where a thin needle is inserted into the scrotal skin. This needle has a syringe at its end which is used to collect the testicular tissue. This percutaneous procedure does not require any incision or stitches.

A variant of this fine needle biopsy is a Core needle biopsy where a hollow, spring-loaded needle is used to extract testicular cells sample called a core sample, the process of extraction makes a loud snapping sound and it is a larger sample as compared to the fine needle sample.

Open biopsy: An open biopsy is also called a surgical biopsy where your doctor starts by making a small 2 to 3 cm cut into your scrotal skin and the testes, then a small tissue sample is taken out for examination. The cuts are then stitched using absorbable sutures.

Complications of testicular biopsy:

The procedure of testicular biopsy is generally painless and risk-free, however in a few instances patients develop;

Testicular infection.

Prolonged bleeding from the site of biopsy.

Formation of a blood clot.

A mind swelling, pain and discoloration is normal. However, you should immediately call your doctor if any of the following occurs:

Severe bleeding that causes staining of large portions of your dressing.

Fever that is more than 100F.

Severe pain and swelling.

 

By- Dr. Alvina Arslan Meer

ART Coordinator (MBBS) and Online Counselor

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IVF Success Stories

ICSI Positive Patient – After 9 Years of Sub-fertility at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center

9 years of Infertility treated Successfully at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center.

Patient : Mr. Tanveer Ahmed & Mrs. Nousheen Jameel

ACIMC has been offering State of the ART Infertility Treatment since 1998, including

ICSI

IVF

PGD

IUI

LAPAROSCOPY

FET

GENDER SELECTION

GENDER BALANCING

FAMILY BALANCING

TEST TUBE

AZOOSPERMIA

Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center – Best Infertility / Subfertility Treatment via IVF / ICSI / FETTesttube

Read More
IVF Success Stories

14 Years of Infertility Treated Successfully at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center

14 years of Infertility treated Successfully at Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center.

Beautiful Baby Boy M.Zaman was born after ICSI treatment and Allah’s Blessings.

Parents : Mr. Abbas & Mrs. Aqeela Abbas

ACIMC has been offering State of the ART Infertility Treatment since 1998, including

ICSI

IVF

PGD

IUI

LAPAROSCOPY 

FET

GENDER SELECTION

GENDER BALANCING

FAMILY BALANCING

TEST TUBE

AZOOSPERMIA

Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center – Best Infertility / Subfertility Treatment via IVF / ICSI / FETTesttube

Read More

How Many Sperms are Required to Fertilize an Egg

HOW MANY SPERMS ARE REQUIRED TO FERTILIZE AN EGG

When a couple is trying to conceive but are not successful in doing so, and the main problem is male infertility then the most commonly asked question arises; how much sperm is required to fertilize an egg? The answer to this is quite simple only one sperm is needed to fertilize an egg!

The next question our patients ask is; then why do we need millions of sperms in the semen of a male?

Well, the answer to this question is not simple; for every sperm that completes its journey in reaching the egg, there are millions of sperms that don’t survive this journey!

The journey of the sperms towards an egg is explained as follows:

The 40 to 150 million sperms normally found in an ejaculate increase the chances of fertilizing an egg in the Fallopian tube, few sperms will reach a mature egg with only one being successful in entering the egg and eventually fertilizing it. This journey of reaching an egg from the vagina, may take half an hour to days, depending on sperm quality and the ability to swim.

The path of these sperms from the vagina to the egg is a long and difficult one. Once sperms have been introduced into the vagina, they start swimming, first to the cervix then towards the Fallopian tubes in an attempt to fertilize an egg, they split their direction with some travelling towards one Fallopian tube while others swim towards the other tube. Now at a given time, only one Fallopian tube has a mature fertile egg that should be fertilized for pregnancy to take place. This way even if good amount of sperms reaches one of the Fallopian tubes they are left without an egg to fertilize. Whereas the sperms in the other tube, where an egg is present, compete against each other to penetrate it. The egg is protected from the sperms by being surrounded with a thick layer of cells called the corona radiate.

The next mission for the sperms, after swimming to an egg is to break this barrier of cells surrounding the egg. Out of these sperms the healthy sperms contain enzymes that can break down this barrier. However, many sperms are required to break down this barrier in order for one of them to penetrate the egg and fertilize it. Therefore, the one sperm that is successful in penetration is the healthiest sperm; this is nature’s way of ensuring that only the healthiest sperm fertilizes the egg, and in turn leads to a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.

So, even if just one sperm fertilizes the egg, this entire process requires millions of sperms to complete the task.

For men who have a low sperm count, below 20 million, are considered less fertile as compared to those with a normal sperm count, because low sperm concentration means less number of sperms travelling towards the egg and even less sperms reaching the egg.

The sperms once being released into the vagina can live for up to three to five days in the female reproductive system.

They eventually die if not encountered with a mature egg, however if the women is in that period of her menstrual cycle where the ovulation has happened and the egg is available for being penetrated, the fertilization takes place in most cases. Once penetration occurs, the eggs form a thick layer around them, this layer is called zona pellucida and serves as a blocking mechanism for other sperms to enter the egg. The cervical mucus also thickens.

Then the process of embryo-genesis begins where the haploid sperm (23 chromosomes) and the haploid egg (23 chromosomes) fuse to form a diploid 46 chromosomes zygote. Here the genetic material and sex of the baby is settled. This zygote then continues to divide as it travels through the Fallopian tube and into the uterus for eventually being implanted in the uterine wall, at this stage its called a blastocyst and starts receiving its nutrition from the mother. Here it divides further and the pregnancy commences.

Finally when all goes well and the baby is born, we can say that, that one sperm has been successful in making a baby boy if the sperm contributed its Y chromosome, or a baby girl if the sperm contributed its X chromosome!

Also, ‘bravo to that sperm!!’

 

By- Dr. Alvina Arslan Meer

ART Coordinator (MBBS) and Online Counselor

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