Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus resulting in an inflammatory response in the body. This inflammation can cause scarring, adhesion and an inhospitable environment for the egg causing infertility.
Common symptoms include pain during menstruation, intercourse, bowel movements and urination. Excessive bleeding can also be present. Infertility is a common complication of endometriosis. Diagnosis is made after taking detailed history, ultrasound and visualizing the endometrial tissue by laparoscopy.
The treatment of endometriosis depends on the severity of disease. But for fertility treatment of such patients assisted reproductive technologies like artificial insemination and In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) can be used. However if pelvic anatomy is disturbed and the endometriosis is severe then IUI treatment success becomes unlikely and IVF becomes the treatment of choice.
In IVF procedure egg is removed from ovary, fertilized in a test tube (In Vitro) and embryo is transferred into uterus bypassing the scarred adhesive tissue resulting in better chances of a positive pregnancy.
By -Dr. Saira Afzal
ACIMC Lahore, Coordinator (MBBS)