Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) involves genetic test on cells of embryos, used for family balancing, selection of the quality best embryo(s) and for pregnancy free of a genetic disease.
Consideration of PGD
PGD benefit couples by decreasing risk for chromosome abnormalities or specific genetic diseases. Selection of recommended patients includes; women with history of several miscarriages or pregnancy with chromosome abnormalities, women over age of 38-40 years and also men with sperm abnormalities. As embryos with higher rates of chromosome abnormalities may also produce by some types of sperm abnormalities.
PGD can differentiate affected, unaffected, or a disease caring embryos to avoid their transfer to the uterus to go for pregnancy.
PGD steps during the IVF cycle
After five to six days biopsy on developing embryos is done for PGD. Biopsy includes removal of few cells from the trophectoderm. Genetic material inside the removed cells is tested for abnormalities the embryos are stored.
Safety with biopsy and PGD
Through PGD fewer pregnancies with chromosomal disorders are expected as most chromosomal disorders are identified prior to transfer of the embryos to the uterus.
PGD help in identification of the best embryos for transfer into the uterus. All decisions concerning which embryo(s) to transfer to the uterus and how to use the remaining embryos are made together between the couple and their medical team.