Risks Involved with PGD
Most of the risks associated with PGD treatment are similar to those with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) / in-vitro fertilization (IVF):
Mild reactions include
- Hot flushes,
- Restlessness or irritability,
- Headaches, and
- Nausea (symptoms usually disappear after a short time)
Transfer of more than one embryo may result in implantation of all embryos.
The risk of complications is higher with twin or multiple pregnancies (although this risk can be reduced by transferring only one embryo).
Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS):
Excessive stimulation of ovaries may lead to a condition commonly known as, Ovarian Hyper-Stimulation Syndrome and symptoms may include;
- Abdominal pain,
- Shortness of breath,
- Reduction in urine output,
- Mineral imbalances may worsen the condition leading to blood clotting and other complications.
- Pelvic infection.
False PGD Testing:
- False-negative PGD testing could result in the transfer of an abnormal embryo, resulting in a possible miscarriage.
- The false test could reveal that there are no normal embryos found for transfer.
- There are 2% chances that PGD Testing might not screen possible embryonic abnormality.
- 1% chances of False Gender Identification are also present.
- There is also a rare possibility that after performing FISH signals of x or y chromosomes are not detectable.
Poor Embryo Quality or Development:
- There is a rare possibility that embryos may not fully develop to a stage on day 3, where performing PGD would not be feasible.
- It is also possible that the blastomere aspirated from the embryo is without a nucleus (x-y chromosomes).
Empty Follicular Syndrome:
There is a Rare Condition known as Empty Follicular Syndrome, where all parameters of treatment appear to be normal including follicle on ultrasound scan.
In Empty Follicular Syndrome, there is fluid in the follicles but no egg is present. This condition is only discovered at the time of pick-up.
Harm to Embryo(s):
Embryos might get harm/damaged by;
- Biopsy for PGD testing
- Freezing may harm the embryo, and after thawing, process quality of embryo may declines
There is no significant evidence of risk of miscarriage after PGD as compared to a natural conception. Multiple pregnancies may result in a miscarriage of one or both fetuses.
Risks to Babies Born after PGD:
No significant evidence currently exists to advise that babies conceived after the PGD process are at any greater risk of abnormality than babies conceived through other treatments of assisted reproduction or natural conception.